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Selenium模拟鼠标操作-自动化测试

更新时间:2022-04-18 09:30:57 作者:多测师 浏览:57

  Selenium提供了一个类ActionChains来处理模拟鼠标事件,如单击、双击、拖动等。

Selenium模拟鼠标操作-自动化测试

  基本语法:

  class ActionChains(object):

  """

  ActionChains are a way to automate low level interactions such as

  mouse movements, mouse button actions, key press, and context menu interactions.

  This is useful for doing more complex actions like hover over and drag and drop.

  Generate user actions.

  When you call methods for actions on the ActionChains object,

  the actions are stored in a queue in the ActionChains object.

  When you call perform(), the events are fired in the order they

  are queued up.

  ActionChains can be used in a chain pattern::

  menu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav")

  hidden_submenu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav #submenu1")

  ActionChains(driver).move_to_element(menu).click(hidden_submenu).perform()

  Or actions can be queued up one by one, then performed.::

  menu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav")

  hidden_submenu = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(".nav #submenu1")

  actions = ActionChains(driver)

  actions.move_to_element(menu)

  actions.click(hidden_submenu)

  actions.perform()

  Either way, the actions are performed in the order they are called, one after

  another.

  """

  def __init__(self, driver):

  """

  Creates a new ActionChains.

  :Args:

  - driver: The WebDriver instance which performs user actions.

  """

  self._driver = driver

  self._actions = []

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions = ActionBuilder(driver)

  def perform(self):

  """

  Performs all stored actions.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.perform()

  else:

  for action in self._actions:

  action()

  def reset_actions(self):

  """

  Clears actions that are already stored on the remote end.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self._driver.execute(Command.W3C_CLEAR_ACTIONS)

  else:

  self._actions = []

  def click(self, on_element=None):

  """

  Clicks an element.

  :Args:

  - on_element: The element to click.

  If None, clicks on current mouse position.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.click(on_element)

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  if on_element:

  self.move_to_element(on_element)

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.CLICK, {'button': 0}))

  return self

  def click_and_hold(self, on_element=None):

  """

  Holds down the left mouse button on an element.

  :Args:

  - on_element: The element to mouse down.

  If None, clicks on current mouse position.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.click_and_hold(on_element)

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  if on_element:

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  if on_element:

  self.move_to_element(on_element)

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.MOUSE_DOWN, {}))

  return self

  def context_click(self, on_element=None):

  """

  Performs a context-click (right click) on an element.

  :Args:

  - on_element: The element to context-click.

  If None, clicks on current mouse position.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.context_click(on_element)

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  if on_element:

  self.move_to_element(on_element)

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.CLICK, {'button': 2}))

  return self

  def double_click(self, on_element=None):

  """

  Double-clicks an element.

  :Args:

  - on_element: The element to double-click.

  If None, clicks on current mouse position.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.double_click(on_element)

  for _ in range(4):

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  if on_element:

  self.move_to_element(on_element)

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.DOUBLE_CLICK, {}))

  return self

  def drag_and_drop(self, source, target):

  """

  Holds down the left mouse button on the source element,

  then moves to the target element and releases the mouse button.

  :Args:

  - source: The element to mouse down.

  - target: The element to mouse up.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.click_and_hold(source) \

  .move_to(target) \

  .release()

  for _ in range(3):

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  self.click_and_hold(source)

  self.release(target)

  return self

  def drag_and_drop_by_offset(self, source, xoffset, yoffset):

  """

  Holds down the left mouse button on the source element,

  then moves to the target offset and releases the mouse button.

  :Args:

  - source: The element to mouse down.

  - xoffset: X offset to move to.

  - yoffset: Y offset to move to.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.click_and_hold(source) \

  .move_to_location(xoffset, yoffset) \

  .release()

  for _ in range(3):

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  self.click_and_hold(source)

  self.move_by_offset(xoffset, yoffset)

  self.release()

  return self

  def key_down(self, value, element=None):

  """

  Sends a key press only, without releasing it.

  Should only be used with modifier keys (Control, Alt and Shift).

  :Args:

  - value: The modifier key to send. Values are defined in `Keys` class.

  - element: The element to send keys.

  If None, sends a key to current focused element.

  Example, pressing ctrl+c::

  ActionChains(driver).key_down(Keys.CONTROL).send_keys('c').key_up(Keys.CONTROL).perform()

  """

  if element:

  self.click(element)

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.key_down(value)

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.pause()

  else:

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.SEND_KEYS_TO_ACTIVE_ELEMENT,

  {"value": keys_to_typing(value)}))

  return self

  def key_up(self, value, element=None):

  """

  Releases a modifier key.

  :Args:

  - value: The modifier key to send. Values are defined in Keys class.

  - element: The element to send keys.

  If None, sends a key to current focused element.

  Example, pressing ctrl+c::

  ActionChains(driver).key_down(Keys.CONTROL).send_keys('c').key_up(Keys.CONTROL).perform()

  """

  if element:

  self.click(element)

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.key_up(value)

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.pause()

  else:

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.SEND_KEYS_TO_ACTIVE_ELEMENT,

  {"value": keys_to_typing(value)}))

  return self

  def move_by_offset(self, xoffset, yoffset):

  """

  Moving the mouse to an offset from current mouse position.

  :Args:

  - xoffset: X offset to move to, as a positive or negative integer.

  - yoffset: Y offset to move to, as a positive or negative integer.

  """

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.MOVE_TO, {

  'xoffset': int(xoffset),

  'yoffset': int(yoffset)}))

  return self

  def move_to_element(self, to_element):

  """

  Moving the mouse to the middle of an element.

  :Args:

  - to_element: The WebElement to move to.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.move_to(to_element)

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.MOVE_TO, {'element': to_element.id}))

  return self

  def move_to_element_with_offset(self, to_element, xoffset, yoffset):

  """

  Move the mouse by an offset of the specified element.

  Offsets are relative to the top-left corner of the element.

  :Args:

  - to_element: The WebElement to move to.

  - xoffset: X offset to move to.

  - yoffset: Y offset to move to.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.move_to(to_element, xoffset, yoffset)

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  self._actions.append(

  lambda: self._driver.execute(Command.MOVE_TO, {

  'element': to_element.id,

  'xoffset': int(xoffset),

  'yoffset': int(yoffset)}))

  return self

  def release(self, on_element=None):

  """

  Releasing a held mouse button on an element.

  :Args:

  - on_element: The element to mouse up.

  If None, releases on current mouse position.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.pointer_action.release()

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.pause()

  else:

  if on_element:

  self.move_to_element(on_element)

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(Command.MOUSE_UP, {}))

  return self

  def send_keys(self, *keys_to_send):

  """

  Sends keys to current focused element.

  :Args:

  - keys_to_send: The keys to send. Modifier keys constants can be found in the

  'Keys' class.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.send_keys(keys_to_send)

  else:

  self._actions.append(lambda: self._driver.execute(

  Command.SEND_KEYS_TO_ACTIVE_ELEMENT, {'value': keys_to_typing(keys_to_send)}))

  return self

  def send_keys_to_element(self, element, *keys_to_send):

  """

  Sends keys to an element.

  :Args:

  - element: The element to send keys.

  - keys_to_send: The keys to send. Modifier keys constants can be found in the

  'Keys' class.

  """

  if self._driver.w3c:

  self.w3c_actions.key_action.send_keys(keys_to_send, element=element)

  else:

  self._actions.append(lambda: element.send_keys(*keys_to_send))

  return self

  # Context manager so ActionChains can be used in a 'with .. as' statements.

  def __enter__(self):

  return self # Return created instance of self.

  def __exit__(self, _type, _value, _traceback):

  pass # Do nothing, does not require additional cleanup.

  方法列表

  perform(self): ---执行链中的所有动作

  reset_actions(self): ---清除存储在远端的动作

  click(self, on_element=None): ---鼠标左键单击

  click_and_hold(self, on_element=None): --鼠标左键单击,不松开

  context_click(self, on_element=None): ---鼠标右键单击

  double_click(self, on_element=None): ---鼠标左键双击

  drag_and_drop(self, source, target): ---拖拽到某个元素后松开

  drag_and_drop_by_offset(self, source, xoffset, yoffset): ---拖拽到某个坐标后松开

  key_down(self, value, element=None): ---某个键盘键被按下

  key_up(self, value, element=None): ---松开某个键

  move_by_offset(self, xoffset, yoffset): ---鼠标移动到某个坐标

  move_to_element(self, to_element): ---鼠标移动到某个元素

  move_to_element_with_offset(self, to_element, xoffset, yoffset): ---移动到距某个元素(左上角)多少的位置

  release(self, on_element=None): ---在某元素上松开鼠标

  send_keys(self, *keys_to_send): ---发送某些值到当前焦点元素

  send_keys_to_element(self, element, *keys_to_send): ---发送某些值到指定元素

  基本用法

  链式写法

  ActionChains(driver).click(clk_btn).context_click(right_btn).perform()

  分步写法

  # 补全化action

  actions = ActionChains(driver)

  # 装载单击动作

  actions.click()

  # 装载右击动作

  actions.context_click()

  # 执行所有被装载的动作

  actions.perform()

  应用举例

  #!/usr/bin/env python

  # _*_ coding:utf-8 _*_

  from selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains import ActionChains

  from selenium import webdriver

  import time

  driver = webdriver.Chrome()

  driver.get("https://www.baidu.com/")

  driver.implicitly_wait(10)

  # 右击百度新闻

  right_click = driver.find_element_by_xpath('//a[@name="tj_trnews"]')

  ActionChains(driver).context_click(right_click).perform()

  以上内容为大家介绍了自动化测试中的Selenium模拟鼠标操作,本文由多测师亲自撰写,希望对大家有所帮助。了解更多自动化测试相关知识:https://www.aichudan.com/xwzx/

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