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Selenium对浏览器的各种操作-自动化测试

更新时间:2022-05-07 09:21:34 作者:多测师 浏览:128

  第一步就是安装Selenium这个模块,当然,前提是你的python已经安装好了

  直接在dos窗口输入

  pip install selenium完成一键安装

  然后就可以新建一个py文件,在里面输入

Selenium对浏览器的各种操作-自动化测试

from selenium import webdriver

from selenium.common.exceptions import TimeoutException

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait # available since 2.4.0

from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC # available since 2.26.0

# Create a new instance of the Firefox driver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()

# go to the google home page

driver.get("http://www.google.com")

# find the element that's name attribute is q (the google search box)

inputElement = driver.find_element_by_name("q")

# type in the search

inputElement.send_keys("cheese!")

# submit the form (although google automatically searches now without submitting)

inputElement.submit()

# the page is ajaxy so the title is originally this:

print driver.title

try:

# we have to wait for the page to refresh, the last thing that seems to be updated is the title

WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(EC.title_contains("cheese!"))

# You should see "cheese! - Google Search"

print driver.title

finally:

driver.quit()

  这样就打开google进行查找cheese!后打印标题并关闭浏览器

  下面介绍各种获取浏览器内的各种元素的方法

By ID

<divid="coolestWidgetEvah">...</div>

element=driver.find_element_by_id("coolestWidgetEvah")

By Class Name

<divclass="cheese"><span>Cheddar</span></div><divclass="cheese"><span>Gouda</span></div>

cheeses=driver.find_elements_by_class_name("cheese")

By Tag Name

<iframesrc="..."></iframe>

frame=driver.find_element_by_tag_name("iframe")

By Name

<inputname="cheese"type="text"/>

cheese=driver.find_element_by_name("cheese")

By Link Text

<a href="http://www.google.com/search?q=cheese">cheese</a>>

cheese=driver.find_element_by_link_text("cheese")

By Partial Link Text

<a href="http://www.google.com/search?q=cheese">search for cheese</a>

cheese=driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text("cheese")

By CSS

<divid="food"><spanclass="dairy">milk</span><spanclass="dairy aged">cheese</span></div>

cheese=driver.find_element_by_css_selector("#food span.dairy.aged")

By XPATH

<inputtype="text"name="example"/><INPUTtype="text"name="other"/>

inputs=driver.find_elements_by_xpath("//input")

(相关的XPATH教程具体可以参考W3C的教程进行学习)

  Using JavaScript

  这么这是两个例子,例子一需要提前加载jqury的支持

  element=driver.execute_script("return $('.cheese')[0]")

  labels=driver.find_elements_by_tag_name("label")inputs=driver.execute_script("var labels = arguments[0], inputs = []; for (var i=0; i < labels.length; i++){"+"inputs.push(document.getElementById(labels[i].getAttribute('for'))); } return inputs;",labels)

  User Input - Filling In Forms

  select=driver.find_element_by_tag_name("select")allOptions=

select.find_elements_by_tag_name("option")foroptioninallOptions:print"Value is: "+option.get_attribute("value")option.click()

  有些选择提取的元素是需要进行筛选的如

  # available since 2.12fromselenium.webdriver.support.uiimportSelectselect=

Select(driver.find_element_by_tag_name("select"))select.deselect_all()select.select_by_visible_text("Edam")

  那么这些form进行如何提交呢?

  driver.find_element_by_id("submit").click()

  element.submit()

  Moving Between Windows and Frames

  <a href="somewhere.html"target="windowName">Click here to open a new window</a>

  driver.switch_to_window("windowName")

  driver.switch_to_frame("frameName")

  driver.switch_to_frame("frameName.0.child")

  切换一些弹出来的比如登录框等

  Popup Dialogs

  这类的有alerts, confirms, and prompts等

  alert=driver.switch_to_alert()

  返回的是一个弹窗的窗体对象

  Cookies

  # Go to the correct domaindriver.get("http://www.example.com")# Now set the cookie. Here's one for the entire domain# the cookie name here is 'key' and its value is 'value'driver.add_cookie({'name':'key','value':'value','path':'/'})# additional keys that can be passed in are:# 'domain' -> String,# 'secure' -> Boolean,# 'expiry' -> Milliseconds since the Epoch it should expire.# And now output all the available cookies for the current URLforcookieindriver.get_cookies():print"%s -> %s"%(cookie['name'],cookie['value'])# You can delete cookies in 2 ways# By namedriver.delete_cookie("CookieName")# Or all of themdriver.delete_all_cookies()

  Changing the User Agent

  profile=webdriver.FirefoxProfile()profile.set_preference("general.useragent.override","some UA string")driver=webdriver.Firefox(profile)

  Drag And Drop

fromselenium.webdriver.common.action_chainsimportActionChainselement=

driver.find_element_by_name("source")target=driver.find_element_by_name("target")

ActionChains(driver).drag_and_drop(element,target).perform()

  以上内容为大家介绍了自动化测试中的Selenium对浏览器的各种操作,本文由多测师亲自撰写,希望对大家有所帮助。了解更多自动化测试相关知识:https://www.aichudan.com/xwzx/

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